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Table of participant countries


This chart shall give you an idea of the legal, political, historical and societal background of the topics migration and volunteering in the participating countries. The informations concerning Hungary are only available in German.

  • Definition Migrant – Migrants/Persons with a migration background: Apart from migrants in a narrower sense (foreign immigrants) a “person with a migration background” is everyone who migrated to the current domain of the Federal Republic of Germany after 1949, as well as all foreigners born in Germany after 1949, and all Germans born in Germany with one parent who immigrated to Germany after 1949, or one parent who was born as a non-German citizen in Germany. (Statistisches Bundesamt)

    This definition, which is essential for migration work, also includes:
    – Immigrated foreigners (including asylum seeking refugees)
    – Germans born abroad (resettlers) who migrated back to Germany and their children who were born in Germany
    – Foreigners born in Germany
    – Germans born in Germany with one parent who is a foreigner or immigrant

  • Migrants, or rather immigrants. In France they are foreigners and immigrants who have become French.

  • Migration ist eine Bewegung oder Abwanderung der Bevölkerung mit verschiedenen Dimensionen. Die Migration kann als Ergebnis des Willens des Einzelnen oder einer Gruppe angesehen werden, welcher von grundsätzlichen gesellschaftlichen, ökonomischen und politischen Prozessen, sowie individuellen Intentionen und alltäglichen Ereignisse zusammen und gleichzeitig beeinflusst wird. (Lukács-Király, 2001, S. 20)

    Die endgültige Emigration kann neben dem Wohnortswechsel auch den Antrag auf eine andere Staatsbürgerschaft beinhalten, und durchaus Veränderung der Identität verursachen. Im Gegensatz dazu ist die temporäre Migration (meist Arbeitsmigration) eine zeitlich begrenzte, vor allem als Folge von wirtschaftlichen und politischen Rahmenbedingungen des Landes, aus dem ausgewandert wird, charakterisierte Bewegung. (Emőke Katalin Péter)

  • An emigrant is a person who moves for a long time from a country to another, since being emigrated from a country and immigrated to another.
    [Garzanti linguistica]

    Related to migration: a population which moves to a country, which is not the native one, in order to settle there. A nomad becomes a resident, steady.
    [Enzyklopepia Treccani]

Types of migration

  • Germany

    – Labor migration
    – Economic migration
    – Flight migration
    – Late repatriate
    – Asylum seeker
    – Foreign students
    – Family reunificatoin

  • France

    – Professional and economic migration
    – Asylum Seekers
    – Statutory refugees
    – Migration for familial reason
    – Migration for Studies

  • Hungary

    – Arbeitsmigration
    – Studenten-Migration
    – Rückkehrer
    – Illegale Migration: Menschenhandel, Flüchtlinge, Asylbewerber

  • Italy

    – Economic migration
    – Family reunification
    – Asylum seekers

    South – North internal migration (until the 1960s: economic migration ; today above all students)

National Characteristics

  • – ca. 840 000 new migrants (as of 2011), primarily from Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, and Hungary)

    – Asylum granting procedure through BAMF,
    – Naturalization tests,
    – Equal treatment of Germans and asylum seekers whose refugee status was approved. Receive temporary work permit. – Entitled to social benefits, child benefits, childrearing subsidy, settling-in grant, language classes and other assistance for integration.

    – BAMF

  • – 5.4 million immigrants: totalizing 8.5% of the French population, including 5.9% of foreigners (2009 : (2009:

    – About 200 000 immigrant arrive each year
    – In 2011, 57335 asylum seekers requests in France

    In Toulouse surroundings (Midi-Pyrénées): 201 800 immigrants in Midi-Pyrénées in 2006 ( 7,3% of the population)
    Women represent 52 % of the immigrant population4
    – 1 out of ten of the residence permits granted are done for economic reasons and professional mobility
    – The economic migrant is often employed on a short-term contract

  • – Ungarn ist ein wichtiges Transitland

    – Tourismus als Einwanderungsgrund

    – Flüchtlinge aus muslimischen Ländern

    – Ungarisch sprechende Migranten

    – Saisonarbeiter

    – Chinesische Arbeiter

    – Familien unter Internationalen Konventionen

    – Ankunft aus wohlhabenden Ländern

  • – About 5,000000 immigrants (EU immigrants included) + undocumented immmigrants). Most of them come from Romania, Morocco, Albania and China
    – Bad organisation and coordination of inclusion and integration services and projects (both public and private). – Hostile beaureaucracy (concerning permits of stay)
    – Social inclusion and integration system is too complicated and closed to foreign people
    – Lack of specific laws on asylum and refugee status
    – Until 2013 : official support for refugees and asylum system (SPRAR) inadequate


  • High labor migration from 1949 (foreign workers, particularly from Mediterranean countries)

  • – In the 19th century, immigration is seen as a free and individual choice. Most immigrants come from bordering country: Italians, Belgians, Germans and mostly for economic reasons.
    – The 14-18 war: Call for soldiers and workforce from colonies (Africa, Maghreb).
    – The crisis of the 30s: crisis, protection of national, native labor, incentive to return “home”, welcoming back of the French who were abroad (back in France).
    – 1945 – 1952: Monnet Scheme, the reconstruction of France: arrival of Italians, Spanish …

    First laws to control immigration

    – 1968: French – Algeria Agreement
    – 70-90 : stop of economic migration and implementation of a policy of migration control.
    – 90 ‘: First debates on integration in France (and in 2010, the aborted debate on French national identity)

  • – Bezwingung der türkischen Besatzung

    – Habsburgerreich

    – Österreich-Ungarische Vereinbarung bis zum Ersten Weltkrieg

    – Versailler Friedensvertrag und seine Folgen und Nachwirkung

    – Erzwungene Installationen nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg

    – Revolution von 1956 und die Nachwirkung

    – Änderung des Systems seit 1990 bis heute

  • – Italy was a country of emigration until the 1970s. It is estimated that between 1876 and 1976 more than 24 million people emigrated (America and Germany in particular).
    – In the 1950s internal economic immigration to the more developed regions (factories, FIAT)
    – Positive migration rate from the beginning of the 1990s
    – Law on immigration almost nonexistent until the 1990s

Current Politics (concepts/ statements)

  • – Article 16 a German constitution – Right of Asylum for political refugees

    Law on Administrative Procedures for Asylum

    Immigration law

    Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (BAMF) (BAMF)

  • Two reference laws on immigration:

    (I) The Ordinance of the 2nd of November 1945 on the conditions of entry and residence of foreigners in France
    (Ii) CESEDA – Code of Entry and Residence of Foreigners and Asylum Law (2004)

    – Act of July 2006: Policy for choosen immigration (Reduction of family migration and asylum seeking , these two are considered as contrary to labor migration which is temporary, selected and qualified).
    – 2009: Setting up of the OFII: French Office for Immigration and Integration. It is the sole operator of the State for legal immigration.

  • – Amt für Einwanderung und Staatsbürgerschaft

    – Grundgesetz

    – 2007 Gesetz über freien Eintritt, Anmeldung und vorbehaltlichen Daueraufenthalt

    – 2007 Gesetz über die Einreise und den Aufenthalt von Drittstaatsangehörigen

  • Legislative Decree 25 July 1998 n. 286 (« Turco-Napolitano »)
    Act 30 July 2002, n. 189 « Bossi-Fini »
    Other immigration acts


Definition Volunteer

  • The expression “voluntary commitment” (also referred to “civic engagement” or “honorary office”) includes all different types of uncompensated help and work in mostly charitable organizations. Apart from legally regulated volunteer programs (youth volunteer service, federal volunteer service) there is an abundance of unregulated or less regulated types of voluntary participation or work, which feature varying degrees of intensity.

    Volunteer work is generally uncompensated financially – possible exceptions may include expense allowances or a minor allowance and social security payments for volunteers in the federal volunteer service programs.

  • – In France, doing benevolent work is different from volunteering
    – Benevolent activities can be defined as “unpaid work, time spent in service to various groups or organizations outside the family and friends”
    – Volunteering is “qualified full-time minimum-wage work”;

  • – Öffentliche freiwillige Tätigkeit bei einer Host Organisation ohne Vergütung.
    – Eine Tätigkeit, die alleine oder in Gruppen, regelmäßig oder gelegentlich, im Inland oder im Ausland durchgeführt wird und dem Gemeinwohl dient.

  • A volunteer is a person who freely offers his service to those who have serious needs and who absolutely need help and assistance, in order to overcome emergency situations or to give continual service.
    [Enciclopedia Treccani]

Types of volunteer services

  • – Bundesfreiwilligendienst (Federal Volunteer Services)
    – Freiwilliges Soziales Jahr (Voluntary Social Year)
    – Freiwilliges Ökologisches Jahr (Voluntary Ecological Year)
    – Freiwilliges Kulturelles Jahr (Voluntary Cultural Year)
    – kirchliches Engagement (Church related commitment)
    – Allgemeine ehrenamtliche Arbeit in gemeinwohlorientierten Einrichtungen (general volunteer work in charity organizations)
    – European Voluntary Service

  • In the voluntary activities (social) we can include:
    – Civic service
    – The Franco-German volunteering – VFA
    – European Voluntary Service – EVS
    – International solidarityvolunteering – VSI
    – International Corporate Volunteering – VIE
    – International administration volunteering VIA
    – Volunteering for insertion –
    – Volunteering as Firefighter

  • – Non-Profit, NGO, kirchliche oder staatliche Institution
    – Profit-Organisationen (Unternehmen, Gesellschaften)
    – Europäischer Freiwilligen Dienst (EVS)

  • – National civic service (SCN) –
    – European Voluntary Service (EVS) –
    – Church commitment
    – Civic participation
    – Involvement in NGOs activities abroad

National Characteristics

  • – Government supports volunteer services (see above)

    Law for the promotion of volunteer services

    Ehrenamtsstärkungsgesetz (Law for the promotion of volunteer services)

  • – Support from the State: Tax deductions for donations; reimbursement of travel costs; public subsidies for organizations’ projects.
    – Difference between volunteering and benevolent activities
    – In 2011, according to statistics, 14M adult work benevolently each year
    – Government Site internet dedicated to benevolent activities: (
    – In France we have the Resource and Information Centres for Benevolent work. For example in Toulouse, we have the Centre for Benevolent Activities (CTV)
    – There is a Fund for the Development of Community and Associative Life (FDVA) to finance the training of benevolent workers.

  • – Die soziale Arbeit während des Kommunismus und die dazugehörigen Vorurteile behindern die größere Verbreitung der Freiwilligenarbeit
    – Für ein Abschlusszeugnis müssen 50 Stunden gemeinnütziger Arbeit geleistet werden
    – Freiwilligen Gesetz: klarer Rechtsrahmen für Freiwilligenarbeit, dadurch klare Abgrenzung zu allen Formen der Schwarzarbeit

  • The governement and the EU support voluntarism (pocket money, travel costs): SCN and EVS


  • – Prestige
    – Provide help
    – Altruism/ emotional fulfillment
    – Positive point in the CV
    – Social bonds

  • – The desire to help others
    – Desire to put one’s expertise at the service of people in difficulty
    – A difficult personal experience
    – The desire to give meaning to one’s life and actions
    – Make intercultural exchanges, learn French
    – Showing one’s convictions, beliefs or ideals
    – The desire to share skills and know-how
    – It is also a question of proximity (doing actions in the neighborhood) and sometimes of emotions (friendship).

  • Wir können keinen Job bekommen ohne Erfahrung zu haben. Wir können ohne einen Job keine Erfahrung sammeln (Angela Murray, Freiwillige aus England )

    – Schülerinnen und Schüler, Schulabgänger: Berufserfahrung und Werdegang
    – Frauen über 40: Reintegration in den Arbeitsmarkt
    – Rentner: Aktive Teilnahme in der Gesellschaft
    – Aktive Bürger im Job: Verfahren gegen Burnout-Syndrom als Prävention, Förderung der sozialen Solidarität

  • – Relevance of voluntary service experiences in the CV (sometimes voluntary service is the only opportunity to be involved in your own work field)
    – Altruism
    – Social connection
    – Experience

Expectations Volunteer

  • – Leave of absence/ time out(Sabbatical)
    – Job orientation
    – Personality development
    – Self-awareness
    – Making new experiences
    – Personal revaluation and acknowledgement

  • – Learn from others, development or personal development
    – Friendliness/sociability: meet others, share with them, networking …
    – Be useful, feel useful, have a useful activity…
    – Experiencing real life …
    – Flexible schedule … a hobby; independence and freedom of choice and commitment …
    – Promotion and personal recognition

  • – Aufwertung
    – Aufwendungen
    – Klare Aufgabenstellung
    – Persönlichkeitsentwicklung
    – Mentoring

  • – Holiday (sabbatical)
    – Professional orientation
    – Personal development
    – Personal experience

Expectation Institutions

  • – Affordable labor
    – Training future employees

  • – Additional resource-persons for community work
    – Volunteer/benevolent work represents a lot in France. In France, volunteer work (all across the country) is equal to 110 0000 full-time jobs.
    – The economic value of volunteering in France = more than 76 M €
    – Ensuring stable activities and viability of charitable organisations in France
    – Active participation of citizens in their countries; a way to support solidarity and social cohesion.

  • – Erleichterung für professionelle Arbeitskräfte
    – Überlassung von Facharbeitskräften

  • – Cheap work force
    – Job substition


  • – none
    – Qualification through agency at which the volunteer works
    – Qualification through vocational training

  • – Validation of prior learning and experience;

    Specific training (and experiences) in listening, building relationships, helping out.
    Acquiring and building various competencies (knowledge, know-how and skills) in legal, economic, political, historical, intercultural fields

    Statutory Qualification (When a volunteer/benevolend activity eventually leads to the creation of a job);

    – Learning tolerance and how to live together, how to build knowledge and approach peacefully the others around us with respect for their singularity and difference
    – A shift of behaviour about oneself and ethnocentrism, discrimination, xenophobia and racism.
    – Communication skills and intercultural mediation.

  • – Nicht nötig
    – MATRA Program: képzők képzése: „Ausbildung der Ausbilder“. Ziel des Programmes: Unterstützung der Organisationen/ Einzelpersonen in der Aneignung von Wissen über Freiwilligenarbeit
    – ÖKA/Freiwilligen-Management: Organisation und Verwaltung von Freiwilligen
    – KAPU Programm: Organisiert die Ausbildung der Freiwilligen, um ihnen praktische Arbeitserfahrung zu ermöglichen

  • According to the projects:
    – psychological profile adapted to the volunteer project
    – requested education / professional experience
    – none

Work fields

  • Welfare (Working with the eldery, youth work, church, etc.)
  • The work done by the volunteer varies and depends more on his interests or aptitudes, and of course the proposals of the organization but also the specific needs of beneficiaries or end-users.

    In France the work of volunteers is truely diversified:
    – Organisation and supervision of events, events
    – Participation in the administrative board or Steering Committee
    – Administrative task, management, accounting
    – Entertainment and sports training
    – Courses, training
    – Hotline, counseling, information
    – Hands-on activities (crafts, handling tasks, cleaning …)

  • – Arbeit mit älterer Bevölkerung (zu Hause oder in einer sozialen Einrichtung)
    – Menschen mit Behinderungen
    – Patientenbesuche im Krankenhaus
    – Kinder- und Jugendarbeit (Nachhilfe, Kinderbetreuung)
    – Arbeiten ohne nötige Fachausbildung (Garten- und Hausarbeit)

  • – Social services
    – Large scale inter-national events (for instance 2006 Olympic winter games in Turin)


  • – none


    – Expense allowance


    – “allowance”/“pocket money”

  • – Sports Associations and leisure 29%
    – Cultural Associations 16%
    – Social Action 13% (volunteer time is the longest in social action …)
    – Religion and religious associations 8%
    – Education, training and Research 8%

    Additional information:

  • – Keine


    – Es gibt eine Bezahlung (steuerpflichtig und beitragsfrei)

  • – Pocket money (SCN, EVS)
    – Other « Benefits » : uniforms, certificates, public thanksgiving
    – None



  • – Volunteer tax exemptions
    – Networks

  • – Act n° 2006-586 of the 23rd of May 2006 related to voluntary associations and educational commitment,
    – Circular of 19th December 2012 related to Fund grants for the development of community life (FDVA)
    – Several decrees on associative life

  • – Ausnützung des SCN/SVE von dem Arbeitsgeber
    – Die Arbeit der freiwilligen Dienstleistenden kann weniger qualifiziert als die eines Professionnellen sein.


  • Exploitation of volunteers (Volunteer Social Year/ Federal Volunteer Service) by employers
  • – Download a booklet on benevolent work in France (Lien)
    – Download the guide on benevolent work in France” (Lien)
    – E-book of IRIV published in 2011 for the european year of volunteering
    – E-Book IRIV (PDF)

  • – Exploitation of the SCN / EVS volunteer
    – The volunteers’ work can be less qualified than professionals’ work
    – Risk of replacement of the professional staff by the volunteers in the social sector due to the cutting of the governmental funds